O passado, o presente e o futuro do MES (Manufacturing Execution Systems)

O termo MES, Manufacturing Execution Systems, foi usado pela primeira vez pela AMR Research (hoje parte da Gartner, Inc) no início da década de 1990 como parte do modelo de 3 camadas que criou para relacionar as 3 principais atividades de uma indústria, Planejamento, Execução e Controle, a 3 grupos de sistemas de informações, respectivamente, ERP/MRPII/SCM, MES, PLC/SCADA/MMI.

Modelo de 3 camadas da AMR Research

Esse modelo simples focava a camada de execução na necessidade de conectar as camadas de planejamento e controle.

Na mesma época, a MESA International expandiu o modelo posicionando o MES como um hub de informações para conectar diversos sistemas industriais e descrevendo suas 11 principais funcionalidades, resumidas a seguir:

  1. Alocação e Status de Recursos: gerencia o status de recursos como máquinas e operadores em tempo real, disponibilizando histórico detalhado.
  2. Sequenciamento das Operações: sequencia as operações com base na capacidade finita dos recursos, em prioridades e atributos, visando balancear a carga entre os recursos, reduzir setups e otimizar o atendimento dos prazos de entrega.
  3. Despacho de Unidades de Produção: gerencia o fluxo da produção na forma de ordens, bateladas e lotes e apresenta a informação na sequência em que o trabalho precisa ser executado. Possui a capacidade de controlar processos de retrabalho e de controlar o estoque em processo em qualquer etapa do processo.
  4. Controle de Documento: controla documentos que precisam ser mantidos junto às unidades de produção, incluindo instruções de trabalho, receitas e desenhos. Disponibiliza informações para operadores e envia dados para os dispositivos de controle. Coleta de Dados: disponibiliza interfaces para coleta dados de produção e de processo de forma manual ou automática, em tempo real.
  5. Gerenciamento da Mão de Obra: apresenta o status da mão de obra em tempo real. Inclui controle de horas produtivas e indiretas, assim como o controle de certificações.
  6. Gerenciamento da Qualidade: disponibiliza a análise em tempo real de medidas coletadas da produção para garantir o controle da qualidade e identificar problemas que requerem atenção. Inclui o controle estatístico de processo e o gerenciamento de inspeções off-line.
  7. Gerenciamento do Processo: monitora a produção e disponibiliza informações e/ou alarmes em tempo real para os operadores corrigirem ou melhorarem as atividades in-process.
  8. Gerenciamento da Manutenção: direciona as atividades para manter equipamentos e ferramentas e garantir a disponibilidade para produção.
  9. Genealogia e Rastreabilidade de Produto: dá visibilidade de onde o produto está a qualquer momento e informações sobre os recursos e materiais utilizados, incluindo dados de fornecedores, lotes e números de série. O registro histórico que permite rastrear os componentes e uso de cada produto final.
  10. Análise de Performance: compara resultados da planta com os objetivos e métricas estabelecidas pela corporação, clientes ou agentes reguladores. Inclui métricas como OEE, MTBF/MTTR, Cp/CpK, entre outros.

Modelo Funcional do MES da MESA International

Em síntese, a MESA definiu o MES como o termo usado para designar os SISTEMAS focados no gerenciamento das operações de manufatura e que estabelecem uma LIGAÇÃO direta entre o PLANEJAMENTO e a EXECUÇÃO. Esses sistemas geram INFORMAÇÕES que POSSIBILITAM a OTIMIZAÇÃO das atividades de PRODUÇÃO desde a emissão de uma ordem até o despacho de produtos acabados, utilizando dados precisos e em tempo real.

Em meados da década de 2000, a ISA, Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society, publicou a norma ISA-95 que provê o padrão de terminologia e um consistente conjunto de conceitos e modelos para integrar sistemas de controle com sistemas empresariais e definir as atividades de gerenciamento das operações de produção.

 

No modelo abaixo a ISA numerou as camadas entre as máquinas e os sistemas empresariais e introduziu um novo acrônimo para descrever a camada MES, o MOM (Manufacturing Operations Management). O fato é que o MES da MESA e MOM da ISA são duas denominações distintas para a mesma camada de execução.

Fonte: ANSI/ISA-S95.00.01-2010, Enterprise-Control System Integration, Part 1: Models and Terminology. Copyright ISA 2010. All rights reserved.

“The activities of manufacturing operations management are those activities of a manufacturing facility that coordinate the personnel, equipment, material, and energy in the conversion of raw materials and/or parts into products. Manufacturing operations management includes activities that may be performed by physical equipment, human effort, and information systems.

Manufacturing operations management includes the activities of managing information about the schedules, use, capability, definition, history, and status of all of the resources (personnel, equipment, and material) within and associated with the manufacturing facility.”

 

“The manufacturing operations management activities correspond to the activity set defined in the Part 1 standard. These are the activities contained within the heavy dotted line shown in Figure 2. The heavy dotted line is equivalent to the Level 3/Level 4 interface defined in Part 1. Manufacturing operations management is subdivided into four categories: production operations management, maintenance operations management, quality operations management, and inventory operations management, as shown in shaded areas in Figure 2.”

A ISA-95 também detalhou as atividades da camada MES e as distribuiu igualmente em quatro grandes pilares, Produção, Manutenção, Qualidade e Inventários, conforme a figura abaixo.

 

“Production operations management shall be defined as the collection of activities that coordinate, direct, manage and track the functions that use raw materials, energy, equipment, personnel, and information to produce products, with the required costs, qualities, quantities, safety, and timeliness.

The activities defined here are not intended to imply an organizational structure of systems, software, or personnel. The model is provided to help in the identification of activities that may be performed and in the identification of roles associated with the activities. It defines what is done, not how it should be organized. Different organizations may have a different arrangement of roles and assignment of roles to personnel or systems.

Not all production requests and production responses cross the boundary to business systems. While production operations may be driven by production schedules there can be production requests and production responses used internally within manufacturing operations management to handle situations such as rework, local intermediates, or consumable production.

Not all information flows within production operations management are depicted in the figure on the left. In any specific implementation, information from any activity may be required by any other activity. Where activities in the production operations management model are defined in detail in this clause, some additional information flows are identified. Not all data sources and data links are identified in the detailed models.”      delo de Atividades do Gerenciamento de Operações da ISA-95

“Quality operations management shall be defined as the collection of activities which coordinate, direct, and track the functions that measure and report on quality. The broad scope of quality operations management includes both quality operations and the management of those operations in order to ensure the quality of intermediate and final products.

The model defines what quality test activities should be done and the relative sequencing of the activities, not how they should be performed in a specific organization structure. Different companies may have different organizations of roles and assignments of roles to personnel or systems.

In the quality test operations activity model, quality requests and quality responses do not always cross the boundary between Level 3 and Level 4 systems. Quality test requests are often generated internally within Level 3 systems. Quality test requests and quality test responses may be exchanged individually or as sets. An organized set of requests can be considered a quality test schedule and an organized set of responses can be considered a quality test performance.

The ovals in the quality test operations activity model indicate the activities, identified as the main functions. Lines with arrowheads indicate an important information flow between the activities. Not all information flows are depicted in the quality test operations activity model. In any specific implementation, information from any activity may be needed by any other activity. The figure at the left only illustrates some major information flows between activities.”

 

“Maintenance operations management shall be defined as the collection of activities which coordinate, direct, and track the functions that maintain the equipment, tools and related assets to ensure their availability for manufacturing and ensure scheduling for reactive, periodic, preventive, or proactive maintenance.

This maintenance activity model identifies the main maintenance tasks and some of the information exchanged between these activities, but not how the activities are to be performed in a specific organizational structure. Companies differ in the organization of maintenance activity roles and the assignment of these roles to personnel or system resources.

The ovals in the maintenance operations model indicate collections of activities, identified as the main activities. Lines with arrowheads indicate an important information flow between the activities. Not all information flows are depicted in the maintenance operations diagram. In any specific implementation, information from any activity may be needed by any other activity. The figure at the left only illustrates some major information flows between activities.”

 

“In some industries and operations, inventory transfer activities may be handled as part of other manufacturing operations activities. In the other cases they are handled as separate inventory transfer activities.

Functions that affect material can be grouped into six functional categories: receipt of material, storage of material, movement of material, processing or conversion of material, testing of material, and shipment of material. Processing and testing of material are discussed in previous clauses. The movement and storage of material functions are defined in this clause.

The model shown in the figure on the left defines the activities of inventory operations management as they relate to the transfer of materials between and within work centers. The model defines what transfer activities may be done and the relative sequencing of the activities, but not how they should be performed in a specific organizational structure. Different companies may have different organization of roles and assignments of

roles to personnel or systems.

The ovals in the inventory operations management model indicate collections of activities, identified as the main functions. Lines with arrowheads indicate an important information flow between the activities. Not all information flows are depicted in the inventory operations diagram. In any specific implementation, information from any activity may be needed by any other activity. The figure on the left only illustrates some major information flows between activities.”

Atualmente, são os modelos da ISA os mais utilizados para descrição de funcionalidades, especificação de requisitos de projetos e avaliação de produtos MES. To obtain a copy contact ISA, PO Box 12277, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 or www.isa.org.

 

Uma das novidades que a indústria 4.0 traz para as indústrias, é a extensão das funcionalidades dos sistemas tradicionais de manufatura, como MES, PLM e ERP, integrando-os às plataformas digitais IoT, ou seja, à Internet das Coisas e suas tecnologias 4.0, como Inteligência Artificial e Realidade Aumentada. É o caminho para a sua Fábrica Inteligente, a sua Fábrica 4.0! (Vide PC-Factory 4.0)

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